The township of Asad Abad is to the west of Hamadan and in the neighborhood of the Kermanshah province. This township lies 52 km. west of Hamadan and 480 km. from Tehran. It has a cold, mountainous type of climate with fertile plains surrounding it. The famous 'Pass of Asad Abad' in the vicinity of Asad Abad is snow-bound dung winter. Asad Abad is also the birth place of the reputed leader of the anti-exploitation movement in contemporary Iran, by the name of 'Seyed Jamal Asad Abadi'.
It is located to the north east of Hamadan, and in the fertile plains of Bahar. This area is famous for its potato cultivation, which is distributed to other parts of the country. Bahar is situated 30 km. from Hamadan and has a cold mountainous climate, with snowy winters and short mild summers. The city of 'Lalehjin' in this township is famous for its ceramics in Iran.
Hamadan township being in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains has a cold, mountainous climate, with snowy winters and short mild summers. The city of Hamadan is the center of the province and is at a distance of 337 km. from Tehran. The structures of city is related to 'Diya Aku' one of the monarchs of the Medes, about (700 BC.). According to the records of a reputed Greek historian, this territory was called 'Ekbatan' and 'Hegmataneh' by this monarch . Thus being transformed into a huge capital, which was later repaiblack by Darius The Great.
During the Parthian era, 'Teesfoon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 23 AH. when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the Arabs, at times it thrived and at times witnessed poverty. In the times of the Deylamites (319 AH.) , it suffeblack plenty of damages. In the 6th century AH., the Seleucidians shifted their capital from Baqdad to Hamadan.
The city of Hamadan which was always assaulted by the rise and fall of powers, was completely destroyed during the Teimooride invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the year 1138 AH., Hamadan surrendeblack to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah Afshar, Hamadan was cleablack off the invaders and according to the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans , it was returned to Iran. The city of Hamadan lay on the 'Silk Road' and even in the last centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of the country.
This township lies in the vast plains north of the province. It has a cold mountainous climate. The city of Kabudrahang is the center of this township which lies 62 km. from Hamadan. Kabudrahang was a part of Hamadan township, but today it is a separate township.
Malayer is one of the southern townships of Hamadan province, with a temperate and mountainous climate. Mostowfi narrates that Nahavand comprised of 100 villages divided into three portions named as, Malayer, Esfidhan and Jeyqooq. The city of Malayer stands 83 km. south east of Hamadan, and 418 km. from Tehran. There are many versions as to its name. It is said that during the time of the Medes, fire would be lighted on the hills to send out information to other parts of the territory from here. This area was therefore known as Mel Agar, which meant 'fire hill.' This is the current township of Malayer, which thrived from long past.
Fathali Shah was responsible for the construction of what is now the city of Malayer today. It was in the year 1188 AH. that this place was inaugurated by Mohammad Ali Mirza Daulat Shah, and in honor of the founder was called Daulat Abad. But later on during the Pahlavi rule was changed to Malayer.
Nahavand is one of the southern townships of Hamadan province, with a temperate mountainous climate and heavy rainfall during the spring. The city of Nahavand lies 152 km. south of Hamadan, and about 460 km. from Tehran. Studies and archeological researches conducted by Prof. Grishman in the 'Geyan Hill', reveals that approximately 3,700 years BC. the inhabitants of this region had a similar civilization to that of Mesopotamia. But this civilization crumbled due to the presence of Asians and Europeans.
At the time of the invasion of Alexander to Iran, during the Achaemenian period, Nahavand was destroyed, though not much is known of this period. The Seleucidians also attacked this city and remained there for some time. In the Sassanide period however, Nahavand held a strategic position. During the Arab invasion, the Iranian soldiers were forced to surrender. Naseblackin Shah (Qajar dynasty), visited Nahavand, and ordeblack the castle of the city, which was an important historical monument, to be completely destroyed. The township of Nahavand is one of the ancient seats of civilization in Iran.
The township of Razan is in the extreme north eastern part of the province and is the neighborhood of the Qazvin province. To the east and north of this township span the mountains of Noubaran, and the famous snow-bound Avaj Gorge is located in these mountains. This is the reason why this township has cold winters and mild, short summers. The city of Razan lies en route between Hamadan and Tehran, 83 km. from Hamadan and 250 km. from Tehran.Razan which was a part of Hamadan township, in the recent years has become itself a township.
Situated in the south eastern slopes of the Alvand Mountains, and to the south of Hamadan on elevated land, it experiences cold winters, and moderate summers. The city of Towiserkan lies at a distance of 395 km. from Tehran and 93 km. from Hamadan. The old city of 'Rood Avar' formerly comprised of three villages called 'Tu'ie', 'Serkan', and 'Shekan'. After the invasion of the Mongols this city lost its importance, and the inhabitants flocked to 'Tu'ie'.
The current Towiserkan is the former Tu'ie. Serkan is 10 km. north west of Towiserkan. Even today it is one of the cities of the Towiserkan township. The Habaqooq-e-Nabi Mausoleum is near this city. This prophet lived here in 700 BC. Archeological excavations made around this mausoleum reveal the flouridment of this area during that time.
Alisadr Cave, Kabudrahang
The said cave is the largest in the world, containing water and offering the use of canoes. This cave is located in the village of Alisadr, district of Kabudrahang, and was inaugurated in the year 1967. In the hills where the Alisadr cave is located, there are two other caves by the names of Soo Bashi and Sarab Caves. The water present in Alisadr Cave, takes its source from that of the Sarab Cave. The Alisadr Cave comprises of a number of small and large 'halls' or spaces, in a maze like fashion, connected to each other by passages.
The water within the cave is extremely cold but very clear, odorless, colorless and with an ordinary taste. It comes under the calcium bicarbonate category, is nearly neutral in PH, but unfortunately polluted. The ceiling of the cave is coveblack with a sedimentation of pure calcium carbonate and a mixture of other chemical compounds. Thus forming stalagmites of unique beauty and design, which draws the attention of visitors. The air within the cave is light and static.
To date, all the canals of this cave have not been discoveblack, and only approximately 2,100 m. have been recognized. Here, the height of the ceiling is between 1-35 m. the width of the canals 2 - 15 m. and the depth of the water 1 - 17 m. Within the cave, electric power, and paddling canoes (seating 4 persons) aid visitors to see parts of this cave.
Baglijeh Cave, Hamadan
The said cave is located near the village of Sorkh Abad (Hamadan) and because it resembles a 'well' special equipment is requiblack here. The Baglijeh cave has beautiful stalagmites. The cave is 50 m. in length.
Dareh Farakh Cave, Malayer
This cave is around Malayer, near the village of 'Jowzan'. The opening or mouth of the cave is at an elevation of 2,220 m. facing the south east and to the measurements of 80-120 cm. Under the opening is a short, tight passage leading to a corridor 9 m. in length, from the ceiling of which water trickes, making the floor of the cave slippery and muddy. This passage narrows towards the end, in front of which is a stony mound and steps, ending up with a pool.
Hizej Cave, Hamadan
This cave is on the Arak - Malayer Road, in the village of Hizej. In colloquial language it is known as Zaqeh Darehsi. On entering the cave, there are 'halls' or areas 12 m. in length. After which there is a vast area that consists of a path branching off from one corner.
Besides the above there are large slabs of stone that are in a state of erosion, which can be observed in another part of this area. The cave is in a corridor shape with smooth walls and continues in this way for 150 m. Thereafter, comes another vicinity, the opening of which resembles a hanging apron. The width of the cave narrows after a distance, and the ceiling also decreases in height. At this point there is a little mound caused by soil sedimentation. To one side of this 'hall' or space is a short opening leading to a vast and level passage, to the left of which is a crevice of 5 m. This cave is 520 m. in length, and its most attractive feature are the stalagtites or strange 'icicle' like limestone hangings.
Sard Kooh Cave, Malayer
This cave is located near the village of Soltan Abad, at an elevation of 2,240 m. in the Sard Kooh Mountains of Malayer. The opening of the cave is at a steep gradient, ending up at a stony entrance to the main passage of the cave. The central part of the cave has a huge area with a high roof. After crossing over a pit-like pathway, having two natural steps of stone; comes a place with a sharp upward incline with an uneven base. To the left of which is a crevice similar to a well, being the main passage of the cave. The cave ends after 73 m. of this passage. The only spectacular sight in this cave is a 'column' of stalagmites of 2 m. Alongside this column, is a tight crevice of 5 m. or a pool containing clear water.
Other Caves, Hamadan
The others are not 'natural caves' but are historical caves of the province. These are as follows: Qalleh Jooq Cave, (village of Qalleh Jooq), Aq Qaya Cave, Tasheer and Gav Khaneh Caves (Malayer road to....) and Azad Cave (near Towiserkan).
Inscriptions and Epigraphs, Hamadan
Aqa Jan Bulaqi Inscription, Asad Abad
This inscription is situated near the village of Aqa Jan Bulaqi in the valley of the Qarah Chay (river) at a distance of about 15 km. north of Asad Abad. The remains of this inscription, reveals a verse, related to the first half of the 12th century AH. in the 'tholth' script regarding a dam built on this river. The name of the founder and date of construction can also be noted on this inscription.
Ganj Nameh Inscriptions, Hamadan
These inscriptions are relics from the period of 'Darius' and 'Khashayar Shah' of the Achaemenian era. The said are located 5 km. west of Hamadan at the end of the 'Dareh-ye-Abbas Abad' or Abbas Abad Valley, and have been engraved on a mountain. Each of these inscriptions have been segregated into three columns with twenty lines, and in three languages of ancient 'Parsi', 'Baboli' and 'Ilami'. The Parsi text is to the left of these two inscriptions, the Baboli text is in the center followed by the Ilami text to the right of the engravings. The engraved tablet to the left is related to Darius the Great, under which is the engraving related to the period of Khashayar Shah.
Alavian (Gonbad-e-Alavian) Tomb, Hamadan
This four-sided structure houses the tombs of two of the members of the Alavian family, related to the Saljuqi period. The dome of this structure had been artistically worked with plaster, but through the ages is no more. The tombs are situated under the domed ceiling of the cellar, and worked in blue tiles. Externally, the structure has been decoratively inlaid with bricks placed in a diamond pattern. The remains of a beautiful inscription, also in embossed brick, written in the 'kufic' script can be observed on the outer wall and columns. The entrance to this tomb is also worth attention.
Avecina Tomb, Hamadan
'Avecina', or (Hojjat-ol-Haq Sheikh-ol-Rais Sharaf-ol-Molk Abu Ali Hossein Ebne Abdollah Ebne Sina), was the great philosopher, scholar, physician of Iran (370-428 AH.). This tomb is located in Bu Ali Sq. Hamadan. The present structure was constructed in the years 1946-1951 and since then has been repaiblack and renovated thrice. Located in an area of 3,090 sq. m. the area under foundation is 1,792 sq. m. The facade of the tomb is of hard stone. Three wide steps lead to the porch where there are ten stone columns. Each of these columns depict a century from the time of the birth of this great man upto date.
The wide wooden doors of the porch, open to reveal the interior with its stone walls and flooring. The main area is square in shape and the twelve base pillars supporting the tower of the tomb are situated here. The tomb of Avecina is between the tower and the tomb of his bosom friend 'Abu Saied'. On both these graves are marble tablets and inscriptions with nine lines in the 'Sols' script.
On two sides of this vicinity, are two halls, one a conference hall and the other a library. The tower of the tomb has been constructed with cement and pieces of hard stone. In the midst of the twelve panels of the tower, is a cubical bronze or 'gun metal' chest conical at the top. On the four sides of which are engravings in the 'Sols' script.
In the year 1949, a portrait of Bu Ali was drawn by Master Abol Hassan Sadiqi, based on particulars obtained from records. In accordance with this portrait, the statue of Bu Ali Sina was sculptublack in white marble and affixed in Bu Ali square of Hamadan.
Baba Peer (No'man Ben Maqran) Tomb, Nahavand
The said tomb is located 8 km. north west of the township of Nahavand in the village of 'Dehqan Qishlaq'. Its foundation is on a natural rock. The structure is four-sided with a short, primitive porch, constructed with bricks. The height and width of the structure being 7m. and 5.8 m. respectively, and along with its dome, reaches a height of 9 m. Internally, the dome is octagonal, with arches of plaster. The ceiling of the dome is of brick and has been proportionately adorned.
Some believe that this is the resting abode of one of the commanders of Islam during the times of 'Hazrat Ali' (A.S.) There is also another theory that this tomb belongs to one of the commanders who was killed in the battle of Nahavand.
Baba Taher Oryan Tomb, Hamadan
This memorial is tomb of the great Gnostic and poet of the late 4th and early 5th centuries AH. The tomb is located on a hill in the north west of Hamadan. The structure was constructed in the years 1967-1970. This tomb is on the basis of an octagon. Eight pillars of the tower, stone slabs of the tomb and its base, together with the steps and the surrounding paved area, are all of sculptublack granite.
The main structure is to the dimensions of 10m. x10 m. and has entrances along with light sutures. The facade and flooring of the structure is of stone, and inscriptions are worked with tiles. Within the internal area are 24 pieces of marble affixed, each having a verse from the poems of this reputed personality.
Dar Sheikh (Abol Abbas Nahavandi) Tomb, Nahavand
The above mentioned is situated in the ancient locality by the same name in the township of Nahavand. The said personality was a Gnostic of the 4th century AH. (a contemporary of Azaddodolleh Deylami). Externally, the structure is on a four-sided plan. The tomb stones present here, reveal that the current structure was constructed during the Qajar period.
Einol Qozat-e-Hamadani Tomb, Hamadan
Another famous personality of Hamadan province is Abdollah Ben Mohammad Mianji Hamadani. A great physician and gnostic of the 6th century AH. He was born in Hamadan in the year 492 AH. and devoted his youth in scholarly activities and gaining knowledge. Thereby, becoming a great teacher as well as a magistrate or judge of his times. He was brave as a judge and had no qualms about stating his beliefs. This characteristic of him, prompted Abol Qassem Dargizini to issue an order for his to be hanged in the year 525 AH. when he was 32 years old.
This personality was also a writer and poet. The lamenting versus composed by him are a part of Farsi (Persian) Literature today.
Esteroo Mord Khay (Ester and Mord Khay) Tomb, Hamadan
Located in the city center, the structure has been constructed of brick and stone. This is the tomb of Ester the Queen of Shoosh (the wife of Khashayar Shah of Iran). Mordecai (Mord Khay) was her uncle. The structure was originally constructed about 11 centuries ago, by the Jewish community in order to pay homage to these two personalities. There is a probability that the current structure has been built on the original site in the 7th century AH.
On the two graves, valuable and antique chests have been affixed. Inscriptions embossed with plaster in the Hebrew script can be noted on the upper wall. This vicinity is a place for pilgrimage of the Jewish sect, and is also held in respect by the Moslems too.
Hafez Abol Ala' (Qorban Tower) Tomb, Hamadan
This tomb is located in the city of Hamadan near the Ebne Sina Junior School. This is the resting abode of 'Sheikh-ol-Islam Hassan Ebne Attar Hafez Abol Ala' and a group of the commanders of the Saljuqi period. It was built in the 7th and 8th centuries AH., comprises of a brick tower with twelve sides and a brick pyramid shaped dome consisting of twelve (brick) panels.
The external part of the building is composed of arches of unique and spectacular design. In the center of the tower is a simple grave, the tomb-stone of which is related to the Safavid period. It is said, that a person by the name of 'Qorban' constructed a trench in this area to safe-guard the people of this locality against the Afqan invasion. Thence the name of this tower. The Qorban tower is on record by The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.
Haj Seifoddoleh Tomb, Malayer
This tomb is in the vicinity of the park of Malayer. This was in the past, the private residence of Haj Seifoddoleh ( Soltan Mohammad Mirza Seifoddoleh, the grand-son of Fathali Shah). This estate and the surrounding lands belonged to Amir Mo'eed, the grand-son of Seifoddoleh, who was responsible for its construction. The vicinity of the tomb has four entrances, decoratively inlaid with bricks and with a domed shaped ceiling.
Mir Razieddin Artimany Tomb, Towiserkan
The tomb of Mohammad Razieddin Artimany, is located on a hill in the village of Artiman ( the township of Towiserkan). The facade of the structure is of brick, and has three tall arches. Behind these arches, there is an arched doorway with tile works. The structure is square in shape, with three chambers or rooms on each side externally. The mausoleum has four arched entrances, done in beautiful tile work on each side. Within the structure, the tomb has been made of hard stone.
Seyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi Tomb, Asad Abad
A man of great repute, a contemplating social reformer of the east was born in the year 1254 AH. in Asad Abad, (Hamadan). He was poisoned to death in Turkey in 1314 AH. A memorial has been constructed at his residence in Asad Abad.
Other Tombs, Hamadan
Other tombs worth mentioning in the province are, the tomb of Qazvini (a Gnostic) and the tomb of Alexander in Hamadan.