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Main Townships: Damavand, Karaj, Ray, Shemiranat, Tehran, Varamin. Main Attractions: Azadi Square, Damavand Mountain, Golestan Palace, Hazrat Abdol Azim Shrine, Imam Khomeini Shrine, Iran (National) Bastan Museum, Iran Carpet Museum, Old Houses, Saltanat Abad Palace, Sepahsalar School and Mosque, etc.
The old city of Damavand is located to the east of Tehran. When Ray flourished, Damavand also prospeblack. But unfortunately due its proximity to the Mount Damavand, earthquakes subjected a heavy damage to this city. During the era of the Ottoman Caliphate, this city came under the invasion of the Muslims. The most important relics of this city belong to Saljuqian era.
This township is situated to the west of Tehran. The stony fire-temple of Takht-e-Rostam belong to Parthians and Sassanian eras, as well as the Soleimanieh palace (which is presently the University of Agriculture), the mausolum of Shahzadeh Soleiman, Imamzadeh Rahman and Zeid Palang Abad-e-Eshtehard are remnants of this region.
Ray is one of the oldest cities of Iran. About 300 BC, one of the successors of Alexander (Solukus) named Ray as "Oriyoos". Thereafter the Parthians named the same "Arsakia" and "Arshakiyeh". During the reign of the Sassanids ‘Ray’ found its current name.In the Islamic era this city was the ruling center of ‘Bani Omayeh’ clan and during the Mongol and Teimoorian conquests claimed to be an area of invasion for several times. Ancient relics of this city which are mentioned in this text indicate the historical antiquity of Ray.
Shemiranat is located to the north of Tehran and has many sight-seeing places as well as pilgrimage sites. Some of which are summer residing quarters of the slopes of Alborz Mountains as well as mausoleum of Imamzadeh Qasem which is a monument of the 10th century AH.
Tehran was one of the villages of Ray city in the Safavid era. At the time of Mongol conquests and destruction of Ray, a large group of people migrated to Tehran village and brought about the development and flourishment of this place. In the Safavid period, Shah Tahmasb Safavid selected this city as capital and was responsible for casting special attention on this region. It was during his reign that 114 towers were constructed (in keeping with the 114 versus of the Qoran, holy book of the Muslims) and under each tower one verse from the Holy Book was inscribed.
The four famous gateways to Tehran namely, Shemiran, Qazvin, Doolab and Hazrat Abdol Azim were constructed during this period. Even in Qajar period in 1166 AH. during the reign of Mohammad Khan Qajar, Tehran was proclaimed the official capital of Iran and many monuments have been constructed then.
During the reign of Naseblackdin Shah the plan of the city was designed by Mirza Yusof Mostowfi-ol-Mamalek. There after during the Pahlavi era, it was re-newed and farther developed and with the continuation of progress after the revolution, the city of Tehran at present is the capital and consideblack to be the largest city of Iran and also ranks as one of the largest cities of the world.
After the destruction of Ray by the Mongols and Teimoorians, a group of the inhabitants migrated to a neighboring area known as Varamin. Varamin is consideblack to be one of the historical cities of Iran. The mausoleum of Imamzadeh Yahya, a relic of the 8th century AH. and the Jame' Mosque, a relic of the Eilkhani Abu Saeed are located here.
Mausoleums and Imamzadehs, Tehran
Aqa (Sar-e-Qabre Aqa) Mausoleum, Tehran
This structure was constructed in 13th century AH. and is the resting abode of Seyed Abdol Qasem Imami ( The Friday Prayer Leader of Tehran) during the Qajar era.
Bibi Shahr Banoo Tomb, Ray
This enameled or glazed dome was the resting place of the mother of Hazrat Sajad (AS) the daughter of Yazdgerd Sassani III. It is located in the southern skirts of the Ray mountains, reputedly known as the mountain of Bibi Shahr Banoo. This dome is 33m. high and 22m. in width and is surrounded by stone walls. The dome is a remnant from the Daylamite period.
Bibi Zobeideh Mausoleum, Ray
This mausoleum was constructed in the 9th century AH. There is a tablet affixed here which narrates the journey of Bibi Shahrbanu and her daughter Zobeideh Khatoon to the city of Karbala.
Hazrat Abdol Azim Shrine, Ray
Hazrat Abdol Azim embraces one of the important and largest places of pilgrimage for Shiite sect round the globe. This religious site is located in Ray. Hazrat Abdol Azim (AS) is one of the offspring of Imam Hassan (PBUH), who was martyblack in the 3rd century AH. The tombs of Imamzadeh Hamzeh (brother of Imam Reza), Imamzadeh Taher (the offspring of Imam Sajad), the tombs of a few monarchs of the Qajar era, and tombs of a few of clergies are situated here. This structure dates back to 848 AH.
Imam Khomeini Shrine, Tehran
The mausoleum of Imam Khomeini (RA), the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran is situated in the south of Tehran city. There are four towers in four sides of the mausoleum which are 91 m. in height in memorandom of Imam Khomeini's age.Seventy-two tulips adorn and surround the dome symbolising the seventy-two persons who fought with his holiness Imam Hossein (AS) in Karbala and were martyblack. The Haram has five entrances, (again symbolic to the Islamic theology related to the prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and the immediate members of his household). There are many service facilities around the mausoleum to respond the needs of pilgrims and visitors to this site.
Imamzadeh Davood, Tehran
This Imamzadeh is the tomb of Davood-ebne Emad, one of the grandsons of Hazrat Zeinolabedin . The mausoleum is located in a mountainous region north west of Tehran drawing hordes of pilgrims to the site.
Imamzadeh Yahya Mausoleum, Tehran
This mausoleum is placed in the Oodlajan sector in Imamzadeh Yahya Alley. In the year 1320 AH, this structure was renovated and repaiblack according to the original old plan with the same dimensions. In this mausoleum an antique chest is placed over the tomb which is 2.5 m. in length, 1.06 m. wide and1.18 m. high, and dates back to 895 AH. The structure of this mausoleum is a remnant of the Mongol era.
Imamzadeh Yahya, Varamin
This Mausoleum is located in "Kohneh Gol" sector in Varamin and was constructed in 707 AH. A turquoise coloblack tile with the date of 628 AH. has been discoveblack near this mausoleum which is consideblack to be one of the most ancient historical relics of Tehran.
Javanmard Qasab Mausoleum, Ray
This mausoleum is located in Mansoor Abad of Ray. Its a square shaped structure with each side 6 m. in length. In the midst of this mausoleum is a tetragonal platform with dimentions of 1x2x1.
Seyed Esmaeil Mausoleum, Tehran
This mausoleum is situated in Chaleh Maidan which is between Boozarjomehr and Molavi Streets. The current structure of mausoleum belongs to the reign of Mohammad Shah. In the upper portion of the grave is an old, beautifully wooden carved door with a length of 162 cm. and a breadth of 66 cm. The oldest historical relic here is an inscription with "Naskh" script dated back to 886 AH. relative to the Aq-Qoyonloo period.
Seyed Nasr-edin Mausoleum, Tehran
This mausoleum is located in Khayam Avenue, between Imam Khomeini St. and Mohammadieh Square In the year 993 AH. It is the oldest date seen on a long wooden slab affixed in this mausoleum. The embossed inscription is in the 'Thulth" script.
Sheikh Shebli Mausoleum and Tower, Damavand
This Tower is to the east of Damavand city. Its structure is conical in shape and made of a mixture of limestone and brick and is 250 years old.
Other Mausoleums and Imamzadehs, Tehran
Other mausoleum and Imamzadehs are : Imamzadeh Zeydeh, Seyed Vali, Imamzadeh Seyed Al Haq, Imamzadeh Hassan, Chehel Tan, Imamzadeh Mohammad, Imamzadeh Ruhollah-ebne-Moosa Kazem, Imamadeh Saleh, Imamzadeh Qasem, Imamzadeh Zeyn Ali and Ein Ali, Imamzadeh Abdollah, Safi Ali Shah Mausoleum, Sheikh Hadi Najm Abadi Mausoleum and Sardar Firooz Koohi Mausoleum in Tehran.The mausoleum of Shahzadeh Hossein and the tomb of Kowkabodin in Varamin. Mausoleum of Immzadeh Hashem in the Haraz Road and mausoleum of Imamzadeh Hadi in Ray.
Other Historical Monuments, Tehran
Arg Square, Tehran
Arg is one of the most important Caliphate’s seat of Tehran which dates back to the Safavid era (the reign of Shah Tahmasb Safavid). In the past, this square had a moat around it. Other royal buildings were also within this area. This square has its name from the time of Fathali Shah, but during the reign of Naseblackin Shah was known as Toop Khaneh and Baq-e-Golshan.
Azadi Square, Tehran
This structure was constructed in the year 1350 (1971), during the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in west of Tehran (at the entrance to Tehran - Karaj special Road) on a piece of land with an area of 50,000 sq. m. At the same time a museum had also been constructed in the same building. The basement of the tower encompasses 400 sq. m. and the tower is 45 m. high from ground level.
Baharestan Square, Tehran
The palace and square of Baharestan is one of the oldest constructions of Tehran. The founder of the palace was Mirza Hossein Khan Sepahsalar. But the statue midst the square is that of Ayatollah Modarres. To the north of this square, was the Negarestan garden of Fathali Shah. Later on a number of buildings were constructed in that area and at present the aggregate of these buildings belong to the University of Tehran. The National Museum of Arts is also located to the south of this vicinity.
Hassan Abad Square, Tehran
Mirza Yusof Aashtiani, the Grand Chancellor of Naseblackin Shah constructed this square in the name of his son Mirza Hassan Mostowfi-ol-Mamalek. From 1303 till 1312 AH. four buildings were constructed in four sides of the square in adaptation to Paladio, the famous Italian Architect of the Renaissance epoch. One of these buildings were demolished and in the year 1345 AH, a multi storeyed building of the National Bank has been erected there. Due to construction of the underground metro network, the central square has also been demolished.
National Garden (Baq-e-Melli) Gateway, Tehran
In the early 1330 AH, a tall gate was erected at the entrance to the former vicinity known as Maidan-e-Mashk. Thereafter a large portion of these lands came under national garden, therefore called Baq-e-Melli (National Garden). Presently this area is in the midst of Centeral Post Office of Tehran, Police Headquarter office and the registration office.
Other Historical Monuments, Tehran
Other historical remnants in the province are as follows: Darvazeh Nou or (Darvazeh Mohammadiyeh) in Tehran, Tappeh Meel on the Meel Road (Varamin), (Tappeh means hillock), Tappeh Kahrizak, Tappeh Komail and Khallariz in Ray, Tappeh Hissarak and Tappeh Qalian in Lavasan, Tappeh Keymir, Tappeh Sarqal'eh in Suhanak, Tappeh and a cemetry of Qeytariyeh.We may point out other old squares of Tehran such as, Mohammadiyeh Square, Asb Davani Square and Sabz-e-Maydan Square.
Old Schools, Tehran
Sepahsalar (Shahid Motahari ) Mosque and School, Tehran
This relic of the 13th century AH. is located in Mostafa Khomeini Avenue. The founders of this mosque were Haj Mirza Hassan Khan Sepahsalar (Chancellor of Naseradin Shah Qajar) and his brother Moshirodoleh. The school is 62m. in length and 61 m. in width and has 60 chambers. The dome is 37 m. high. The structure comprises of chambers, porticos, corridors, a two storeyed building, a large dome, minarets , palace for nocturnal prayers (Shabestan), a reputable library and a gateway.
Azadi Museum, Tehran
This collection is within the tower of Azadi Square. There are different articles belong to era BC, Achaemenian, Parthian or even the Sassanian periods, as well as Islamic era. These pieces are earthenware articles, admirable metal vessels, valuable paintings and carpets.
Cinema Town of Radio & Television (Hatami), Tehran
This cinema town was constructed in the year 1979 covering an area of 10 hectares for the purpose of renovation of scenes from old city of Tehran.
Designing the facade of buildings, shops, localities and alleys have taken place by Italian designers right according to the paintings and photographs of that time. Great efforts have been made to bring forth the replica of famous historical buildings which through the passage of time were witness to various incidents. This Cinema town consists of three important aggregates:
Contemporary Arts Museum, Tehran
This museum was inaugurated in the year 1977. It is located in North Kargar Avenue, adjoining the Laleh Park. This three storeyed museum has 9 art galleries displaying the affects of many reputed foreign artists. It includes a library and an audio-visual section. In the statue garden of the museum, a collection of statues and pieces of art works, as well as marvelous creations of contemporary foreign and Iranian sculptures can be observed.
Fine Arts (Kakh-e-Siyah) Palace Museum, Tehran
Originally this palace was constructed for the court ministry. The facade of this palace is in black marble. In the year 1980, this palace was converted into an art gallery, where paintings of Iranian and foreign artists were put on display. It was inaugurated in 1982. This three storeyed palace displayed paintings from the Safavid , Zandiyeh and Qajar periods in addition to paintings of contemporary and European artists of the 17th-20th centuries.
Iran Carpet Museum, Tehran
This beautifully architectublack structure, with the carpet shaped facade is located north west of Laleh Park. The display area covers 3,400 sq. m. and consists of two halls exhibiting carpets and Kilims. It was inaugurated in 1977. Its library is enriched with 3500 books. The collection of carpet museum comprises of samples of Iranian carpets from the 9th century AH. up to this date. About 135 master pieces of Iranian carpets are displayed in the ground floor. The art of carpet weaving in Iran, considering the 2500 year old ‘Pazirik’ which was discoveblack in southern Siberia in the year1949, dates back to pre-Achaemenian period.
Iran Decoration Arts Museum, Tehran
The said museum is founded in the year 1959 . This museum is in four storeys exhibiting the following:
Iran National (Bastan) Museum, Tehran
This National Museum also known as ‘Iran Bastan Museum, covers an area of 2,744 sq. m. and is the first scientific museum of Iran which exhibits relics from the 6th millennium BC till the Islamic era. It was constructed in the year 1935 - 11937. This two storeyed museum comprises of halls for speeches, exhibition and a library,etc.
In first floor of museum pre-historical and historical relics are displayed. The second floor contains remnants of the Islamic era. The said museum was closed for basic repairs till the year 1987. At the same year it was inaugurated as "National Museum of Iran". The most valuable pieces displayed here are Qorans from the 3rd-13th century AH, a collection of 61 gold coins from the Samanid and Al-e-Buyeh eras as well as a collection of silver coins belong to the Samanid, Al-e-Buyeh and Qaznavi periods etc.
This museum has a collection of books and publications in various languages, in the fields of Iranian art, archeology, history and also literature relative to the neighboring countries.
Malek Library and Museum, Tehran
This museum covers an area of 1000 sq. m. and comprises of halls, library, micro-films room, a reading room and computer services center. This library consists of 40,000 books and its management is governed by Astan-e-Qods Razavi.
The Malek Museum is located in the vicinity of Baq-e-Melli and to the south of the Foreign Ministry. Collections such as silk and woolen carpets of the Qajar period, gold and silver coins form the Achaemenian period upto Qajar era, wooden pen case, chairs, tables and paintings from the Safavid era upto Qajar period, different scripts, stamps and albums can also be observed here.
Mellat Palace Museum, Tehran
This palace was constructed in the aggregate of Sa’d Abad as the resident palace for the Pahlavi family members. Articles present here are valuable Iranian carpets, foreign porcelains and other assets belonging to the Pahlavi Dynasty.
Military Palace Museum, Tehran
This museum exhibits valuable and fabulous paintings and is located in the aggregate of Sa’d Abad.
Morvarid (Pearl) Museum, Karaj
This museum was formerly the palace of Shams Pahlavi (sister of the Shah) and is located in Mehr Shahr (Karaj). Valuable articles such as furniture, chandeliers, porcelains are exhibited here.
National Arts Museum, Tehran
The facade of museum is adorned with tile works. It has a large wooden door with a network of glass panes. The wooden and carved planets as well as the velvet curtains are all the works of the artists employed by the museum. The relics of this museum can be pointed as follows:
Miniatures in the style of the 10th century which has been painted recently. Each Miniature displays various artistic affects such as frame works, inlaid works,embossment works as well as gilded work.
The statue of Haj Moqbel (Neyzan-e-Siyah-e-del Zendeh) (the black and hearty flute player), the masterpiece of Abol Hassan Khan Sediqi, apprentice of Kamal-ol-Molk. a tableau with a tile-work background relative to 40 years ago, besides many other pieces of works of art.
National Jewelry Museum, Tehran
The background of National Jewels of Iran dates back to Safavid era in which it was decided that national jewels belong to National Treasury of government,i.e., apart from the personal properties of the sovereign. The valuable collections of this museum comprises of the pink coloblack diamond of Darya-ye-Noor (182 Carats), the Peacock Throne or Takhte Tavous which was built during the reign of Fathali Shah consisted of twelve different pieces (Joined together)and with 26,733 pieces of jewels attached to it.
A golden globe (atlas) of Naseblackin Shah, with 34 kg of pure gold, having 51,366 pieces of jewels and weighing 3,656 grams. On this golden atlas or globe southeast Asia and Britain have been distinctly defined with diamonds, and India with rubies. Sculptublack pieces of turquoise of Firoozeh and large pearls of the Persian Gulf have also been used to adorn this globe.
Natural Monuments and Wildlife Museum (Dar Abad), Tehran
This museum is the richest Natural History museums of Iran which was inaugurated in 1993. Animals are kept in five sections of this museum each for mammals, birds, aquatic species, reptiles and insects. In paleontology section, the first living objects on earth and fossils with scientific classifications have been put for display.
In taxidermy sections, are consideblack to be good workshops for watching and learning different techniques for preservation of natural animal bodies. In this museum there are two cinema halls where films regarding wildlife are shown. The traditional teahouse of the museum, overlooking the city of Tehran, is consideblack to be one of the interesting focal points of the museum.
Ostad Soqti (13th Aban) Museum, Tehran
This museum was constructed in the year 1946 and at present it belongs to the black Crescent Society. Soqti created approximately about 6,000 paintings and over a thousand number of gypsum, stone and bronze statues of reputed scientific and literal personalities of Iran and even different kinds of people belonging to different cultures and costs. Many of these pieces of arts are exhibited in 13th Aban Museum.This museum is located to the south-west of the Imam Khomeini Square and is a site worth visiting.
Reja't Va Ebrat (King's Mother Palace) Museum, Tehran
This palace is in the aggregate of Sa’d Abad and in 1971 was utilized as the residence for the Queen Mother. Valuable Iranian carpets and articles brought from Europe can be noted here.
Reza Abbasi Museum, Tehran
This museum has been named after the famous artist (painter) and calligrapher of the Safavid era and consists of two halls:
Sa'd Abad Palace Museum, Tehran
The aggregate of Sa’d Abad is comprised of about 14 palaces located in the northern most region of Tehran, and enjoys an extremely pleasant climate. Situated in an area of 400 hectares, this aggregate is surrounded by about 180 hectares of natural forests, springs, gardens, greenhouse and avenues coveblack by trees and flowers. Each of these palaces coveblack large areas and along with recreational facilities such as pools, lagoons, playgrounds and gardens used to house the immediate family members of the shah.
Sabz (Shahvand Palace) Museum, Tehran
This palace was constructed by Reza Khan in 1927 to the north west of Darband on the hillock of Sa’d Abad. This palace has a mirror pavilion, an entertainment area, a dinning room, bed room and an office room. The facade of this palace is ornamented with green stones. The valuable carpets within are masterpieces of reputed Iranian carpet weavers. Most of the decorative articles of the palace had been brought from Europe in the year 1974-75.
Saraan Building, Tehran
This large edifice is located to the north of the international exhibition grounds and covers an area of 24,500 sq. m. in a vicinity of 100.000 m. The main pavilion is coveblack by a large conical dome with a steel framework. The ceiling is of a ‘Paneled’ type and is placed within 36 m. distance from the ground. The other parts of this structure consists of: two multipurpose pavilions, praying rooms, two glorious corridors, two special halls as waiting room and resting place for important personalities, four speech halls and large demonstration areas. Originally it was constructed for holding the Islamic Countries Summit in 1997.
Tehran International Exhibition Ground, Tehran
This exhibition center covers an area of 1.3 million sq.m. and consists of 62 halls. The first international exhibition in Tehran was inaugurated in1969 at the same venue.
Other Museums, Tehran
The following are other museums of the province: Janbazan of the Islamic revolution Museum, Majlis-e-Shorai-e-Islami (Parliament) Museum or Senate Museum, Zoology Museum, Post Museum, ‘Aabguineh’ Museum, Behzad Museum, anthropology Museum, the Prof. Hessabi Museum, Saba Museum, Abkar Museum, Coin Museum, ‘ Shohada’ Museum, Geological Museum, Air force Museum, carpet Museum of Rassam Arabzadeh, Art Galleries of Sepheri, Mehr, Sabz Ali Zadeh, Sadr, classic, Golestan and….